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Appendix G
Part-of-Speech Tags used in the Hepple Tagger [#]

CC - coordinating conjunction: ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘nor’, ‘or’, ‘yet’, plus, minus, less, times (multiplication), over (division). Also ‘for’ (because) and ‘so’ (i.e., ‘so that’).
CD - cardinal number
DT - determiner: Articles including ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘every’, ‘no’, ‘the’, ‘another’, ‘any’, ‘some’, ‘those’.
EX - existential ‘there’: Unstressed ‘there’ that triggers inversion of the inflected verb and the logical subject; ‘There was a party in progress’.
FW - foreign word
IN - preposition or subordinating conjunction
JJ - adjective: Hyphenated compounds that are used as modifiers; happy-go-lucky.
JJR - adjective - comparative: Adjectives with the comparative ending ‘-er’ and a comparative meaning. Sometimes ‘more’ and ‘less’.
JJS - adjective - superlative: Adjectives with the superlative ending ‘-est’ (and ‘worst’). Sometimes ‘most’ and ‘least’.
JJSS - -unknown-, but probably a variant of JJS
-LRB- - -unknown-
LS - list item marker: Numbers and letters used as identifiers of items in a list.
MD - modal: All verbs that don’t take an ‘-s’ ending in the third person singular present: ‘can’, ‘could’, ‘dare’, ‘may’, ‘might’, ‘must’, ‘ought’, ‘shall’, ‘should’, ‘will’, ‘would’.
NN - noun - singular or mass
NNP - proper noun - singular: All words in names usually are capitalized but titles might not be.
NNPS - proper noun - plural: All words in names usually are capitalized but titles might not be.
NNS - noun - plural
NP - proper noun - singular
NPS - proper noun - plural
PDT - predeterminer: Determiner like elements preceding an article or possessive pronoun; ‘all/PDT his marbles’, ‘quite/PDT a mess’.
POS - possessive ending: Nouns ending in ‘’s’ or ‘’’.
PP - personal pronoun
PRPR$ - unknown-, but probably possessive pronoun
PRP - unknown-, but probably possessive pronoun
PRP$ - unknown, but probably possessive pronoun,such as ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘his’, ‘his’, ‘its’, ‘one’s’, ‘our’, and ‘their’.
RB - adverb: most words ending in ‘-ly’. Also ‘quite’, ‘too’, ‘very’, ‘enough’, ‘indeed’, ‘not’, ‘-n’t’, and ‘never’.
RBR - adverb - comparative: adverbs ending with ‘-er’ with a comparative meaning.
RBS - adverb - superlative
RP - particle: Mostly monosyllabic words that also double as directional adverbs.
STAART - start state marker (used internally)
SYM - symbol: technical symbols or expressions that aren’t English words.
TO - literal “to”
UH - interjection: Such as ‘my’, ‘oh’, ‘please’, ‘uh’, ‘well’, ‘yes’.
VBD - verb - past tense: includes conditional form of the verb ‘to be’; ‘If I were/VBD rich...’.
VBG - verb - gerund or present participle
VBN - verb - past participle
VBP - verb - non-3rd person singular present
VB - verb - base form: subsumes imperatives, infinitives and subjunctives.
VBZ - verb - 3rd person singular present
WDT - ‘wh’-determiner
WP$ - possessive ‘wh’-pronoun: includes ‘whose’
WP - ‘wh’-pronoun: includes ‘what’, ‘who’, and ‘whom’.
WRB - ‘wh’-adverb: includes ‘how’, ‘where’, ‘why’. Includes ‘when’ when used in a temporal sense.

:: - literal colon
, - literal comma
$ - literal dollar sign
- - literal double-dash
“ - literal double quotes
´ - literal grave
( - literal left parenthesis
. - literal period
# - literal pound sign
) - literal right parenthesis
’ - literal single quote or apostrophe