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Appendix E
Part-of-Speech Tags used in the Hepple Tagger [#]

CC - coordinating conjunction: ”and”, ”but”, ”nor”, ”or”, ”yet”, plus, minus, less, times (multiplication), over (division). Also ”for” (because) and ”so” (i.e., ”so that”).
CD - cardinal number
DT - determiner: Articles including ”a”, ”an”, ”every”, ”no”, ”the”, ”another”, ”any”, ”some”, ”those”.
EX - existential there: Unstressed ”there” that triggers inversion of the inflected verb and the logical subject; ”There was a party in progress”.
FW - foreign word
IN - preposition or subordinating conjunction
JJ - adjective: Hyphenated compounds that are used as modifiers; happy-go-lucky.
JJR - adjective - comparative: Adjectives with the comparative ending ”-er” and a comparative meaning. Sometimes ”more” and ”less”.
JJS - adjective - superlative: Adjectives with the superlative ending ”-est” (and ”worst”). Sometimes ”most”and ”least”.
JJSS - -unknown-, but probably a variant of JJS
-LRB- - -unknown-
LS - list item marker: Numbers and letters used as identifiers of items in a list.
MD - modal: All verbs that don’t take an ”-s” ending in the third person singular present: ”can”, ”could”, ”dare”, ”may”, ”might”, ”must”, ”ought”, ”shall”, ”should”, ”will”, ”would”.
NN - noun - singular or mass
NNP - proper noun - singular: All words in names usually are capitalized but titles might not be.
NNPS - proper noun - plural: All words in names usually are capitalized but titles might not be.
NNS - noun - plural
NP - proper noun - singular
NPS - proper noun - plural
PDT - predeterminer: Determinerlike elements preceding an article or possessive pronoun; ”all/PDT his marbles”, ”quite/PDT a mess”.
POS - possesive ending: Nouns ending in ”’s” or ”’”.
PP - personal pronoun
PRPR$ - unknown-, but probably possessive pronoun
PRP - unknown-, but probably possessive pronoun
PRP$ - unknown, but probably possessive pronoun,such as ”my”, ”your”, ”his”, ”his”, ”its”, ”one’s”, ”our”, and ”their”.
RB - adverb: most words ending in ”-ly”. Also ”quite”, ”too”, ”very”, ”enough”, ”indeed”, ”not”, ”-n’t”, and ”never”.
RBR - adverb - comparative: adverbs ending with ”-er” with a comparative meaning.
RBS - adverb - superlative
RP - particle: Mostly monosyllabic words that also double as directional adverbs.
STAART - start state marker (used internally)
SYM - symbol: technical symbols or expressions that aren’t English words.
TO - literal to
UH - interjection: Such as ”my”, ”oh”, ”please”, ”uh”, ”well”, ”yes”.
VBD - verb - past tense: includes conditional form of the verb ”to be”; ”If I were/VBD rich...”.
VBG - verb - gerund or present participle
VBN - verb - past participle
VBP - verb - non-3rd person singular present
VB - verb - base form: subsumes imperatives, infinitives and subjunctives.
VBZ - verb - 3rd person singular present
WDT - wh-determiner
WP$ - possesive wh-pronoun: includes ”whose”
WP - wh-pronoun: includes ”what”, ”who”, and ”whom”.
WRB - wh-adverb: includes ”how”, ”where”, ”why”. Includes ”when” when used in a temporal sense.

:: - literal colon
, - literal comma
$ - literal dollar sign
- - literal double-dash
- literal double quotes
- literal grave
( - literal left parenthesis
. - literal period
# - literal pound sign
) - literal right parenthesis
- literal single quote or apostrophe